Scuba diving is a kind of underwater diving. The diver is entirely independent of surface supply to breathe underwater since the diver uses a self-contained underwater breathing apparatus called scuba. Scuba divers carry a compressed air and often put on their back as their own source of breathing when in underwater, unlike surface-supplied divers and breath-hold divers, this scuba allows the diver a greater independence and freedom in movement and underwater endurance for a long time.
A mixture of enriching air called Nitrox becomes popular as compressed air becomes common because of the benefit it gives, like the reduction of intake nitrogen after a repetitive as compressed air becomes common. A system that discharges into the environment the used breathing gas when it was exhaled is known as an open circuit system and composed of a single or a greater number of diving cylinders supplied the breathing gas into a diver at high pressure through a regulator. For extension and emergency gas or decompression gas, they have included additional cylinders.
The scuba system has a semi-closed or closed-circuit rebreather where recycling of exhaled gases is allowed, but compared to the open circuit, the volume of a gas is reduced, so cylinder that is smaller in size is good to use for the same dive duration. Rebreathers become more attractive for military divers since the rebreather extends the time spent underwater, fewer bubbles and less noise are produce compared to open-circuit scuba resulting to no detection when underwater, this rebreather also help Scientific divers not to disturb marine animals when they go near them for observation and lastly it avoids interference of bubbles for media diver.
Many people try or use scuba diving, either professionally or recreationally. Different roles and needs are provided by different scuba, and such roles include public safety, for military and scientific, but most divers use diving equipment that is surface supplied when practicable for commercial diving. Most divers using scuba are armed forces when on their mission for their operation that may go through underwater and may be referred to as attack swimmers, frogmen, and combat divers
A diver of scuba moves underwater through fins that are attached to their feet, but they could also use a sled pulled from the surface or use external propulsion provided by a propulsion vehicle for divers. They are also other equipment that a scuba diver uses to improve their underwater journey, one of these is a mask, known as equipment to improve the diver’s vision and protection from exposure, buoyancy control equipment and other equipment that cater the needs under specific condition and circumstances and dive purpose. Snorkel what some scuba divers used when they are just on surface swimming and being a scuba diver requires a certification and these certificates are issues by affiliated diver certification organization, and this helps instructors to train scuba divers in procedures and skills based on their level of certification. The training includes self-help emergency procedures and an assist for an equipped diver who is experiencing problems underwater, standard procedure when operation and using the equipment, dealing with underwater environmental general hazards, and most training organization required a minimum level of fitness and health. But for some applications, a higher level of fitness is appropriate to stay better and move underwater and avoid underwater health problems.
Diving under recreational is done by divers who have an interest underwater increased by a number of technical disciplines, and another is for enjoyment and leisure examples of which are wreck diving. For cold countries they have ice diving, diving on caves and diving on deeps. Tourism on underwater requires the citizen to follow their associated tour guiding/guidelines and an appropriate such must follow. That’s why it is mostly done in scuba to avoid underwater accidents and problems. To better perform the task of divers underwater suitable for scuba, they may be employed professionally for better results and these divers in the recreational community work as a divemaster, guides, instructor, and assistant instructor work for full time or part-time. These professional diver instructors have a big responsibility for its client’s health and safety, of recreational diver and the national legislation regulate and recognized the reward for dive leadership and dive guiding.
Military diving is one of the specialist areas of scuba diving, with various roles of military frogmen that have a long history of it, and some of their roles are behind enemy lines infiltration, direct combat using a manned torpedo or using a placing mine, operations engineering such as bomb disposal. Moreover, diving teams of police forces in civilian operations perform “Search and Recovery” or the operations like “Search and rescue” that helps of crime section and after the destruction of natural disaster that greatly involves various bodies of water. In addition, rescue divers in some cases, may also be part of fire department rescue teams, lifeguard units in exclusive beaches and resort or a paramedical service for injured people due to underwater accidents, and maybe consider as a public service diving that provides service during unwelcome circumstances.
In a scientific manner, researchers have done in aquarium that is bigger in size and fish farm, deep seas for harvesting of marine biological resources such as fishes, lobsters, seaweeds, scallops, crabs and crayfish for human food, observations of exotic marine animals and fish farms may be done using scuba and scuba equipment. On the other hand, the cleaning, inspection of ships, and a husbandry known or the maintenance for ships, underwater hull inspection of boats and ships may be done boat owners, ship or boat crew, and a commercial diver.
Lastly, for photography and documentary of marine life and animals a lot of this have circulated the internet for educational and public information purposes and used by the government to increase tourism in one country and to promote the natural resources they have but before this scuba equipment’s and suit are very much used and strictly followed. Scuba divers come with a digital camera to capture videos and pictures of animals, observe and record their behavior underwater and to document how amazing is life beneath the sea. Scuba divers are the one who greatly interacts with the sea animals as they come close to take clear videos like a diver taking photos of the shark. And they also guide the other divers who want to come near the animals for entertainment and enjoyment.
Divers involved with underwater environments are professional divers, such as underwater photographers or videographers. On the other way, we also have scientific diving are done using scuba because it necessary mobility are better provided, and this includes biology for the study of marine life, hydrology for the water and its movement in relation to land, geology for the solid features beneath the water like sediments and seafloors, oceanography for the all the aspects of ocean and the ecosystem, waves and water current, and underwater archaeology for the artifacts, biofacts and landscapes from first era to learn the evolution of marine animals . If the open circuit’s noise frights the subjects or the bubble causes interference on the image, the Breathers are used by a scuba diver.
Exemption on scuba diving has been defined by Scientific Diving under the OSHA in United States that observe using scientific expertise or gathering data on system or natural phenomena to induce or generate information that is non-propriety, knowledge, data or other products or things that is important for educational purposes and activities, research and studies, Scientific purposes where diving is done by a person and diving safety manual and a safety board for diving control are followed by divers.
If you want to get licensed in scuba diving, many institutions are open for training like the PADI Scuba diver course if you want to go primarily for diving with a dive guide, and you have a short time. If your ultimate goal is earning an Open water diver certification, this course gives you an intermediate step for that. It trains you to dive to a maximum depth of 12 meters or 40 feet but with a supervision of a professional PADI instructor. You can participate in dive activities and rent, obtain air fills, or purchase any equipment for scuba as long as you are adequately supervised. You can take other certain PADI specialty diver courses and complete the PADI open water diver course.
On this training, you will gain:
- 1st, Knowledge for better understanding scuba diving basic principles.
- 2nd, You will be confined to water dives to learn the basic skills in scuba diving.
- 3rd, you will have an open water dive to explore and use your knowledge and skill in diving.
For the equipment, you will be learning the proper usage of certain scuba gears including the snorkel, regulator, fins, control device for buoyancy, a tank, and a mask. The equipment that you will wear will vary depending on if you’re for tropical diving, cold water, or temperate condition. The instructor from PADI will do its job to explain what equipment you will be needing and give additional material such as the required logbook for learning.
The certification required for scuba is divided into three primary steps:
- 1st is called the independent study phase. In this part, it helps you to gain all the background knowledge that you must learn and build a knowledge that you must possess for safety scuba diving.
- The 2nd step includes the controlled environment and learning to dive. One of the examples is the swimming pool. Here, you’ll be practicing skills, but you are under professional supervision.
- And for the third and final step is the certification process, where you will perform the skills you learn in the pool and execute those in open water.
If you’re thinking about how long this scuba training will last, it will depends on your schedule where the first steps you can use a couple of days to study the educational materials for diving, while the second step you can use weekends or a week to for having private lessons but the last step, it requires that you have to finish or complete this for a two-day periods which includes the four open water dives.
Scuba is a choice if a diver requires mobility and movements that have a large range, and it allows safety and legal constraints. And the surface-supplied equipment is restricted by codes of practice and by legislation because of its higher risk work, especially in commercial diving. In conclusion, diving equipment is based on both logistical constraints and legal between the surface-supplied equipment and scuba.